Published On: 26/06/2010|Categories: 2008–2012, Vol.31 (2), Vol.31 (2010)|

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Meta-analysis of studies with two groups and two measurement occasions must employ order-one effect size indices to represent study outcomes. Especially with non-random assignment, non-equivalent control group designs, a statistical analysis restricted to post-treatment scores can lead to severely biased conclusions. The 109 primary studies included in 4 metaanalyses were recovered, and their authors were contacted to request the raw data to calculate the order-one effect size indices. From this total we only got 13 primary studies. The results with the raw data analysis were compared with those performed with the order-zero and order-one indices. Despite the difficulties for gathering the data, the few data sets analyzed show that if the meta-analysis is performed with order-zero indices, the results can be severely misleading.

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